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Conjunctions

Definition

Some words are satisfied spending an evening at home, alone, eating ice-cream right out of the box, watching Seinfeld re-runs on TV, or reading a good book. Others aren't happy unless they're out on the town, mixing it up with other words; they're joiners and they just can't help themselves. A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence.

 

Coordinating Conjunctions

 

The simple, little conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions (you can click on the words to see specific descriptions of each one):

 

Coordinating Conjunctions

and      but       or         yet       for        nor       so

(It may help you remember these conjunctions by recalling that they all have fewer than four letters. Also, remember the acronym FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So. Be careful of the words then and now; neither is a coordinating conjunction, so what we say about coordinating conjunctions' roles in a sentence and punctuation does not apply to those two words).

 

conjunction

When a coordinating conjunction connects two independent clauses, it is often (but not always) accompanied by a comma:

 

Ulysses wants to play for UConn, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements.

When the two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction are nicely balanced or brief, many writers will omit the comma:

 

Ulysses has a great jump shot but he isn't quick on his feet.

The comma is always correct when used to separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. See Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses for further help.

 

A comma is also correct when and is used to attach the last item of a serial list, although many writers (especially in newspapers) will omit that final comma:

 

Ulysses spent his summer studying basic math, writing, and reading comprehension.

When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect all the elements in a series, a comma is not used:

 

Presbyterians and Methodists and Baptists are the prevalent Protestant congregations in Oklahoma.

A comma is also used with but when expressing a contrast:

 

This is a useful rule, but difficult to remember.

In most of their other roles as joiners (other than joining independent clauses, that is), coordinating conjunctions can join two sentence elements without the help of a comma.

 

Hemingway and Fitzgerald are among the American expatriates of the between-the-wars era.

Hemingway was renowned for his clear style and his insights into American notions of male identity.

It is hard to say whether Hemingway or Fitzgerald is the more interesting cultural icon of his day.

Although Hemingway is sometimes disparaged for his unpleasant portrayal of women and for his glorification of machismo, we nonetheless find some sympathetic, even heroic, female figures in his novels and short stories.

Beginning a Sentence with And or But

A frequently asked question about conjunctions is whether and or but can be used at the beginning of a sentence. This is what R.W. Burchfield has to say about this use of and:

 

There is a persistent belief that it is improper to begin a sentence with And, but this prohibition has been cheerfully ignored by standard authors from Anglo-Saxon times onwards. An initial And is a useful aid to writers as the narrative continues.

from The New Fowler's Modern English Usage

edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996.

Used with the permission of Oxford University Press.

The same is true with the conjunction but. A sentence beginning with and or but will tend to draw attention to itself and its transitional function. Writers should examine such sentences with two questions in mind: (1) would the sentence and paragraph function just as well without the initial conjunction? (2) should the sentence in question be connected to the previous sentence? If the initial conjunction still seems appropriate, use it.

 

Among the coordinating conjunctions, the most common, of course, are and, but, and or. It might be helpful to explore the uses of these three little words. The examples below by no means exhaust the possible meanings of these conjunctions.

 

AND

To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: "Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response."

To suggest that one idea is the result of another: "Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house."

To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage): "Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality.

To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage): "Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight."

To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative): "Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep in debt." top

To suggest a kind of "comment" on the first clause: "Charlie became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew him."

 

BUT

To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: "Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably."

To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary): "The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor."

To connect two ideas with the meaning of "with the exception of" (and then the second word takes over as subject): "Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team."

OR

To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: "You can study hard for this exam or you can fail."

To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: "We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.

To suggest a refinement of the first clause: "Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae."

To suggest a restatement or "correction" of the first part of the sentence: "There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us."

To suggest a negative condition: "The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim "Live free or die." top

To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see use of and above): "They must approve his political style or they wouldn't keep electing him mayor."

Authority used for this section on the uses of and, but, and or: A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. Longman Group: Essex, England. 1993. Used with permission. Examples our own.

 

The Others . . .

The conjunction NOR is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation or writing. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neither-nor (see below):

 

He is neither sane nor brilliant.

That is neither what I said nor what I meant.

>It can be used with other negative expressions:

 

That is not what I meant to say, nor should you interpret my statement as an admission of guilt.

It is possible to use nor without a preceding negative element, but it is unusual and, to an extent, rather stuffy:

 

George's handshake is as good as any written contract, nor has he ever proven untrustworthy.

The word YET functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings: in addition ("yet another cause of trouble" or "a simple yet noble woman"), even ("yet more expensive"), still ("he is yet a novice"), eventually ("they may yet win"), and so soon as now ("he's not here yet"). It also functions as a coordinating conjunction meaning something like "nevertheless" or "but." The word yet seems to carry an element of distinctiveness that but can seldom register.

 

John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton.

The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play golf every day.

In sentences such as the second one, above, the pronoun subject of the second clause ("they," in this case) is often left out. When that happens, the comma preceding the conjunction might also disappear: "The visitors complained loudly yet continued to play golf every day."

 

Yet is sometimes combined with other conjunctions, but or and. It would not be unusual to see and yet in sentences like the ones above. This usage is acceptable.

 

The word FOR is most often used as a preposition, of course, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunction. Some people regard the conjunction for as rather highfalutin and literary, and it does tend to add a bit of weightiness to the text. Beginning a sentence with the conjunction "for" is probably not a good idea, except when you're singing "For he's a jolly good fellow. "For" has serious sequential implications and in its use the order of thoughts is more important than it is, say, with because or since. Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause:

 

John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the company's board of trustees.

Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train.

Be careful of the conjunction SO. Sometimes it can connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can't. For instance, in this sentence,

 

Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet.

where the word so means "as well" or "in addition," most careful writers would use a semicolon between the two independent clauses. In the following sentence, where so is acting like a minor-league "therefore," the conjunction and the comma are adequate to the task:

 

Soto has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds of his adoring fans.

Sometimes, at the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a kind of summing up device or transition, and when it does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma:

 

So, the sheriff peremptorily removed the child from the custody of his parents.

The Case of Then and Than

Than & Then

In some parts of the United States, we are told, then and than not only look alike, they sound alike. Like a teacher with twins in her classroom, you need to be able to distinguish between these two words; otherwise, they'll become mischievous. They are often used and they should be used for the right purposes.

 

Than is used to make comparisons. In the sentence "Piggy would rather be rescued then stay on the island," we have employed the wrong word because a comparison is being made between Piggy's two choices; we need than instead. In the sentence, "Other than Pincher Martin, Golding did not write another popular novel," the adverbial construction "other than" helps us make an implied comparison; this usage is perfectly acceptable in the United States but careful writers in the UK try to avoid it (Burchfield).

 

Generally, the only question about than arises when we have to decide whether the word is being used as a conjunction or as a preposition. If it's a preposition (and Merriam-Webster's dictionary provides for this usage), then the word that follows it should be in the object form.

 

He's taller and somewhat more handsome than me.

Just because you look like him doesn't mean you can play better than him.

Most careful writers, however, will insist that than be used as a conjunction; it's as if part of the clause introduced by than has been left out:

 

He's taller and somewhat more handsome than I [am handsome].

You can play better than he [can play].

In formal, academic text, you should probably use than as a conjunction and follow it with the subject form of a pronoun (where a pronoun is appropriate)

 

Then is a conjunction, but it is not one of the little conjunctions listed at the top of this page. We can use the FANBOYS conjunctions to connect two independent clauses; usually, they will be accompanied (preceded) by a comma. Too many students think that then works the same way: "Caesar invaded Gaul, then he turned his attention to England." You can tell the difference between then and a coordinating conjunction by trying to move the word around in the sentence. We can write "he then turned his attention to England"; "he turned his attention, then, to England"; he turned his attention to England then." The word can move around within the clause. Try that with a conjunction, and you will quickly see that the conjunction cannot move around. "Caesar invaded Gaul, and then he turned his attention to England." The word and is stuck exactly there and cannot move like then, which is more like an adverbial conjunction (or conjunctive adverb — see below) than a coordinating conjunction. Our original sentence in this paragraph — "Caesar invaded Gaul, then he turned his attention to England" — is a comma splice, a faulty sentence construction in which a comma tries to hold together two independent clauses all by itself: the comma needs a coordinating conjunction to help out, and the word then simply doesn't work that way.

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

 

A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or Dependent) Clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning.

 

He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life.

Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies.

Unless we act now, all is lost.

Notice that some of the subordinating conjunctions in the table below — after, before, since — are also prepositions, but as subordinators they are being used to introduce a clause and to subordinate the following clause to the independent element in the sentence.

 

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

after

although

as

as if

as long as

as though

because

before

even if

even though

if

if only

in order that

now that

once

rather than

since

so that

than

that

though

till

unless

until

when

whenever

where

whereas

wherever

while

 

 

The Case of Like and As

Strictly speaking, the word like is a preposition, not a conjunction. It can, therefore, be used to introduce a prepositional phrase ("My brother is tall like my father"), but it should not be used to introduce a clause ("My brother can't play the piano like as he did before the accident" or "It looks like as if basketball is quickly overtaking baseball as America's national sport."). To introduce a clause, it's a good idea to use as, as though, or as if, instead.

 

Like As I told you earlier, the lecture has been postponed.

It looks like as if it's going to snow this afternoon.

Johnson kept looking out the window like as though he had someone waiting for him.

In formal, academic text, it's a good idea to reserve the use of like for situations in which similarities are being pointed out:

 

This community college is like a two-year liberal arts college.

However, when you are listing things that have similarities, such as is probably more suitable:

 

The college has several highly regarded neighbors, like such as the Mark Twain House, St. Francis Hospital, the Connecticut Historical Society, and the UConn Law School.

 

 

Omitting That

The word that is used as a conjunction to connect a subordinate clause to a preceding verb. In this construction that is sometimes called the "expletive that." Indeed, the word is often omitted to good effect, but the very fact of easy omission causes some editors to take out the red pen and strike out the conjunction that wherever it appears. In the following sentences, we can happily omit the that (or keep it, depending on how the sentence sounds to us):

 

Isabel knew [that] she was about to be fired.

She definitely felt [that] her fellow employees hadn't supported her.

I hope [that] she doesn't blame me.

Sometimes omitting the that creates a break in the flow of a sentence, a break that can be adequately bridged with the use of a comma:

 

The problem is, that production in her department has dropped.

Remember, that we didn't have these problems before she started working here.

As a general rule, if the sentence feels just as good without the that, if no ambiguity results from its omission, if the sentence is more efficient or elegant without it, then we can safely omit the that. Theodore Bernstein lists three conditions in which we should maintain the conjunction that:

 

When a time element intervenes between the verb and the clause: "The boss said yesterday that production in this department was down fifty percent." (Notice the position of "yesterday").

When the verb of the clause is long delayed: "Our annual report revealed that some losses sustained by this department in the third quarter of last year were worse than previously thought." (Notice the distance between the subject "losses" and its verb, "were").

When a second that can clear up who said or did what: "The CEO said that Isabel's department was slacking off and that production dropped precipitously in the fourth quarter." (Did the CEO say that production dropped or was the drop a result of what he said about Isabel's department? The second that makes the sentence clear).

Authority for this section: Dos, Don'ts & Maybes of English Usage by Theodore Bernstein. Gramercy Books: New York. 1999. p. 217. Examples our own.

 

 

 

Beginning a Sentence with Because

Somehow, the notion that one should not begin a sentence with the subordinating conjunction because retains a mysterious grip on people's sense of writing proprieties. This might come about because a sentence that begins with because could well end up a fragment if one is not careful to follow up the "because clause" with an independent clause.

 

Because e-mail now plays such a huge role in our communications industry.

When the "because clause" is properly subordinated to another idea (regardless of the position of the clause in the sentence), there is absolutely nothing wrong with it:

 

Because e-mail now plays such a huge role in our communications industry, the postal service would very much like to see it taxed in some manner.

 

Correlative Conjunctions

 

Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.

 

She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm.

Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."

Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best.

Correlative conjunctions sometimes create problems in parallel form. Click HERE for help with those problems. Here is a brief list of common correlative conjunctions.

 

 

both . . . and

not only . . . but also

not . . . but

either . . . or     neither . . . nor

whether . . . or

as . . . as

Conjunctive Adverbs

 

The conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result are used to create complex relationships between ideas. Refer to the section on Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas for an extensive list of conjunctive adverbs categorized according to their various uses and for some advice on their application within sentences (including punctuation issues).


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Parts of speech exercise

You have to read the following sentences and underline the word or words that belong to the part of speech specified in the bracket.

An example is given below.

Question: She must have reached home. (verb)

Answer: She must have reached home.

1. She went to the market and bought some eggs. (verb)

2. I want to go now. (adverb)

3. What are you doing there? (adverb)

4. There is a mouse underneath the piano. (preposition)

5. Masons build houses. (noun)

6. John is my best friend. (proper noun)

7. She looked up but didn’t see anything. (adverb)

8. My family live in different parts of India. (collective noun)

9. That was a difficult question. (adjective)

10. She was very impressed with her results. (adverb)

11. Although she is poor, she is happy. (conjunction)

12. Have we bought enough chairs? (adjective)

13. The policeman didn’t run fast enough to catch the thief. (adverb)

Answers

1. She went to the market and bought some eggs. (verb)

2. I want to go now. (adverb)

3. What are you doing there? (adverb)

4. There is a mouse underneath the piano. (preposition)

5. Masons build houses. (noun)

6. John is my best friend. (proper noun)

7. She looked up but didn’t see anything. (adverb)

8. My family live in different parts of India. (collective noun)

9. That was a difficult question. (adjective)

10. She was very impressed with her results. (adverb)

11. Although she is poor, she is happy. (conjunction)

12. Have we bought enough chairs? (adjective)

13. The policeman didn’t run fast enough to catch the thief. (adverb)

Notes

The word enough can be an adjective and an adverb.


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This page about sentence structure will focus on the differences between simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences and compound-complex sentences.


You must know how to correctly write these sentence types for IELTS as the examiner will be looking for them when they grade you for your 'grammatical range'.


Clauses are the buliding blocks of sentences.


Sentence Types


There are four types of sentence:


Simple

Compound

Complex

Compound-Complex


1. Simple Sentences


A simple sentence is one clause with a subject and verb.


Computers are important in the modern world.


Formula = SV


However, it can have more than one subject and verb:


2 subjects:


Computers and other technological devices are important in the modern world.


Formula = SSV


2 Verbs:


I search for information and play games on my computer.


Formula = SVV


2 subject and 2 verbs:


I and my brother search for information and play games on our computers.


Formula = SSVV


2. Compound Sentences


A compound sentence consists of 2 or 3 clauses. It is when simple sentences are joined together.


In this sentence structure, the clauses are joined with the following coordinating conjunctions:


F = for


A = and


N = nor


B = but


O = or


Y = yet


S = so


The word 'fanboys' is an easy way to remember the different conjuntions that make up compound sentences. Obviously the most common are 'and', 'but', 'or' and 'so'.


Here are some examples of compound sentence structure:


Computers are important, but they can be dangerous too.


Formula = SV but SV


Computers are important, but they can be dangerous too, so we must be careful.


Formula = SV but SV so SV.


Avoid writing too many clauses as the sentence may get difficult to follow, and you cannot use each one more than once in a sentence to join clauses.


This is wrong:


Computers are used widely in most countries now, and they are a sign of progress, and we must ensure everyones has access to them.


Incorrect formula = SV and SV and SV. X


Two possible corrected versions:


Computers are used widely in most countries now, and they are a sign of progress. We must ensure everyones has access to them.


Formula = SV and SV. SV.


Computers are used widely in most countries now, and they are a sign of progress, so must ensure everyones has access to them.


Formula = SV and SV so SV.


Using semicolons


There is an instance when you can have a compound sentence structure without a coordinating conjuntion, and this is when you join two clauses with a semicolon. It is used when two ideas are related.


For example:


Computers are used widely in most countires; they are a sign of progress.


3. Complex Sentences


Complex sentences are more complicated (which is maybe why they are called 'complex'!).


This type of sentence structure is important for IELTS because to get awarded a band 6 or higher for your 'grammatical range and accuracy', you need to demonstrate that you are able to use them.


The more varied and the more accurate your complex sentences are, the higher the band score for this.


There are different types of complex sentences and these will be looked at in more detail later, so here you are just provided with the basics.


Complex sentences are two (or more) clauses joined together, but they are not joined by 'fanboys' (coordinating conjuntions). They are joined by subordinating conjuntions.


These are subordinating conjunctions:


after

although

as

as if

as long as

as much as

as soon as

as though

because

before

even if

even though

if

in order to

in case

once

since

so that

that

though

unless

until

when

whenever

whereas

where

wherever

while



For example:


People take natural health supplements even though they may not have been tested.


Our children may not be properly educated if we don't spend more on schools.


I went to bed as soon as he left because I was tired.


These are all adverbial clauses. In these types of complex sentence, the second clause can be used to start the sentence.


In this case, a comma is needed in the middle.


Even though they may not have been tested, people take natural health supplements.


If we don't spend more on schools, our children may not be properly educated.


As soon as he left, I went to bed because I was tired.


Noun clauses and relative clauses are also a type of complex sentence structure, but these will be looked at later.


4. Compound-Complex Sentences


Compound-complex sentences are the same as complex sentences but they also have a simple (or compound) sentence before or after the 'complex' part.


For example:


I ate a lot when I got home, but I was still hungry.


The part that is underlined is the complex sentence. As you can see, it also has a simple sentences connected to it. It can also have a full compound sentence attached to it:


I ate a lot when I got home, but I was still hungry, so I went shopping to buy some more food.


These are a compound-complex sentences.



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IELTS Grammar

These pages are here to help you with your IELTS grammar, mainly for writing.

However, it can obviously help with your speaking and also with your reading as it is easy to misunderstand what you have read if you are confused by different sentence structures.

All grammar for IELTS is important, but there are some specific things that are directly related to IELTS.

The explanations and exercises will highlight these so you can see how they are relevant.

Why is grammar important?

There is no actual grammar test section in the IELTS test, but you are still graded on this by the examiner in the speaking test and writing test.

These are specifically what you are graded on in each test:

Writing:

• Task Achievement / Response
• Coherence and Cohesion
• Lexical Resource
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy

Speaking:

• Fluency and coherence
• Lexical Resource
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy
• Pronunication

So as you can see, grammar makes up 25% of each test.

However, it is also important for the 'lexical resource' part. This is your use of such

things as your vocabulary, idiomatic vocabulary, and collocations.

You will be marked down on this if you are making mistakes with such things as word

forms (e.g. using a noun form instead of a verb form) so this is also grammar related.

This is not to suggest that you should focus only on grammar as the other elements such as fluency in your speaking and your ability to answer the question and organise your response in the writing are a major part of the marking.

But it is clearly important to work on improving your IELTS grammar, and this is often the part candidates have the most problems with and the thing that brings their score down.


How is the grammar for IELTS writing marked exactly?

In order to work on improving your IELTS grammar, it is useful to understand how it is marked.

For each of the parts of the exam highlighed above, you are given a band score (so you get four scores) and these are then averaged to get your overall score for your writing.

For example:

Writing:

• Task Achievement / Response - band 6
• Coherence and Cohesion - band 6
• Lexical Resource - band 6
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy - band 5
Overall score = 5.5

The table below shows the two sections on lexis and grammar. These are adapted from the public band descriptors and show you what the examiner is looking for.

The column on 'grammatical range and accuracy' is exactly as from the public band descriptors, but the 'lexical resource' column just picks out the parts related to grammar.


Writing Band Descriptors for Grammar


Band

Lexical Resource

Grammatical Range & Accuracy

9

Sophisticaled control of lexical features; rareminor 'slips' occur

·         Uses a wide range of structures with full flexibility and accuracy; rare minor errors occur only as slips.

8

Produces rare errorsin spelling and / or word formation

·         Uses a wide range of structures

·         The majority of sentences are error-free

·         Makes only very occasional errors or inappropriacies

7

Occasional errors in word choice, spelling, and / or word formation

·         Uses a variety of complex structures

·         Produces frequent error-free sentences

·         Has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few errors

6

Some errors in spelling and / or word formation, but they do not impede communication

·         Uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms

·         Makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication

5

Noticeable errors in spelling and / or word formation that maycause some difficultyfor the reader

·         Uses only a limited range of structures

·         Attempts complex sentences but these tend to be less accurate than simple sentences

·         May make frequent grammatical errors and punctuation may be faulty; errors can cause some difficulty for the reader

4

Limited control of word formation and / or spelling; errors may cause strain for the reader

·         Uses only a very limited range of structures with only rare use of subordinate clauses

·         Some structures are accurate but errors predominate, and punctuation is often faulty

3

Errors may severely distort the message

·         Attempts sentence forms but errors in grammar and punctuation predominate and distort the meaning

2

Essentially no control of word formation and / or spelling

·         Cannot use sentence forms except in memorised phrases

1

Can only use a few isolated words

·         Cannot use sentence forms at all


Understanding the descriptors

If you study the table you will notice phrases near the top such as 'rare', 'occasional' and 'few' in reference to word form and grammatical errors.

Near the band 6 range are phrases such as 'some', and then 'noticeable' and 'causing difficulty' as you go down lower.

You can also see that it is important to be:

• Getting your word forms right
• Understanding how to write complex sentences
• Expanding your range of grammatical structures you can use
• Using grammar accurately (i.e minimising your error density).

So the pages you'll find here link to explanations and exercises on IELTS grammar to

help you improve your score and your grammar.

This is a new section so there are only two IELTS grammar lessons so far.
Start with this one on sentence clauses.

When you understand these, move on to learn more about sentence structure, specifically simple, compound and complex sentences.

This lesson then explains in more detail about complex sentences, which are essential to be able to write correctly for a higher band score.

One type of complex sentence you can learn about here is adverbial clauses.

Follow this link to learn more about modal verbs and how they are commonly used in IELTS for writing and speaking.

Keep an eye on this page though as it will be updated further. Good luck!


دوره فشرده گرامر آیلتس و نکات کلیدی آیلتس


  
برچسب‌ها: سایت آموزش گرامر آیلتس, IELTS Grammar, آموزش گرامر, کلاس گرامر, دوره گرامر آیلتس
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تدریس خصوصی فشرده آیلتس




گرامر آیلتس کاربرد حروف اضافه در زبان انگلیسی و آیلتس


Prepositions: Locators in Time and Place


A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.

Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.

You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.

All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction].

Those words in bold blue font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.



You may have learned that ending a sentence with a preposition is a serious breach of grammatical etiquette. It doesn't take a grammarian to spot a sentence-ending preposition, so this is an easy rule to get caught up on (!). Although it is often easy to remedy the offending preposition, sometimes it isn't, and repair efforts sometimes result in a clumsy sentence. "Indicate the book you are quoting from" is not greatly improved with "Indicate from which book you are quoting."

Based on shaky historical precedent, the rule itself is a latecomer to the rules of writing. Those who dislike the rule are fond of recalling Churchill's rejoinder: "That is nonsense up with which I shall not put." We should also remember the child's complaint: "What did you bring that book that I don't like to be read to out of up for?"

Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn. This page contains some interesting (sometimes troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes. To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand (to hand?) is an important first step.
Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in

We use at to designate specific times.
#The train is due at 12:15 p.m.

We use on to designate days and dates.
#My brother is coming on Monday.
#We're having a party on the Fourth of July.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
#She likes to jog in the morning.
#It's too cold in winter to run outside.
#He started the job in 1971.
#He's going to quit in August.
Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in

We use at for specific addresses.
#Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.

We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
#Her house is on Boretz Road.

And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
#She lives in Durham.
#Durham is in Windham County.
#Windham County is in Connecticut.
Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on and No Preposition
IN
(the) bed*
the bedroom
the car
(the) class*
the library*
school*
AT
class*
home
the library*
the office
school*
work
ON
the bed*
the ceiling
the floor
the horse
the plane
the train
NO PREPOSITION
downstairs
downtown
inside
outside
upstairs
uptown

* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.

Prepositions of Movement: to
and No Preposition

We use to in order to express movement toward a place.
#They were driving to work together.
#She's going to the dentist's office this morning.

Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you.
#We're moving toward the light.
#This is a big step towards the project's completion.

With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition.
#Grandma went upstairs
#Grandpa went home.
#They both went outside.
Prepositions of Time: for and since

We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).
#He held his breath for seven minutes.
#She's lived there for seven years.
#The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.

We use since with a specific date or time.
#He's worked here since 1970.
#She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.
Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.

Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.


NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS

approval of
awareness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for


fondness for
grasp of
hatred of
hope for
interest in
love of


need for
participation in
reason for
respect for
success in
understanding of

ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS

afraid of
angry at
aware of
capable of
careless about
familiar with


fond of
happy about
interested in
jealous of
made of
married to


proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of
tired of
worried about

VERBS and PREPOSITIONS

apologize for
ask about
ask for
belong to
bring up
care for
find out


give up
grow up
look for
look forward to
look up
make up
pay for


prepare for
study for
talk about
think about
trust in
work for
worry about

A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation.

Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions

agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle
argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)
correspond to a thing, with a person
differ from an unlike thing, with a person
live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people


 


برچسب‌ها: گرامر آیلتس, کاربرد حروف اضافه در آیلتس, کاربرد حرف اضافه در زبان انگلیسی, ielts grammar, english grammar
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