خانه آیلتس , دوره فشرده آیلتس , تدریس خصوصی آیلتس
انواع جملات در زبان انگلیسی
This page about sentence structure will focus on the differences between simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences and compound-complex sentences.
You must know how to correctly write these sentence types for IELTS as the examiner will be looking for them when they grade you for your 'grammatical range'.
Clauses are the buliding blocks of sentences.
There are four types of sentence:
1. Simple Sentences
A simple sentence is one clause with a subject and verb.
Computers are important in the modern world.
Formula = SV
However, it can have more than one subject and verb:
Computers and other technological devices are important in the modern world.
Formula = SSV
I search for information and play games on my computer.
Formula = SVV
2 subject and 2 verbs:
I and my brother search for information and play games on our computers.
Formula = SSVV
2. Compound Sentences
A compound sentence consists of 2 or 3 clauses. It is when simple sentences are joined together.
In this sentence structure, the clauses are joined with the following coordinating conjunctions:
F = for
A = and
N = nor
B = but
O = or
Y = yet
S = so
The word 'fanboys' is an easy way to remember the different conjuntions that make up compound sentences. Obviously the most common are 'and', 'but', 'or' and 'so'.
Here are some examples of compound sentence structure:
Computers are important, but they can be dangerous too.
Formula = SV but SV
Computers are important, but they can be dangerous too, so we must be careful.
Formula = SV but SV so SV.
Avoid writing too many clauses as the sentence may get difficult to follow, and you cannot use each one more than once in a sentence to join clauses.
This is wrong:
Computers are used widely in most countries now, and they are a sign of progress, and we must ensure everyones has access to them.
Incorrect formula = SV and SV and SV. X
Two possible corrected versions:
Computers are used widely in most countries now, and they are a sign of progress. We must ensure everyones has access to them.
Formula = SV and SV. SV.
Computers are used widely in most countries now, and they are a sign of progress, so must ensure everyones has access to them.
Formula = SV and SV so SV.
There is an instance when you can have a compound sentence structure without a coordinating conjuntion, and this is when you join two clauses with a semicolon. It is used when two ideas are related.
Computers are used widely in most countires; they are a sign of progress.
3. Complex Sentences
Complex sentences are more complicated (which is maybe why they are called 'complex'!).
This type of sentence structure is important for IELTS because to get awarded a band 6 or higher for your 'grammatical range and accuracy', you need to demonstrate that you are able to use them.
The more varied and the more accurate your complex sentences are, the higher the band score for this.
There are different types of complex sentences and these will be looked at in more detail later, so here you are just provided with the basics.
Complex sentences are two (or more) clauses joined together, but they are not joined by 'fanboys' (coordinating conjuntions). They are joined by subordinating conjuntions.
These are subordinating conjunctions:
as long as
as much as
as soon as
in order to
People take natural health supplements even though they may not have been tested.
Our children may not be properly educated if we don't spend more on schools.
I went to bed as soon as he left because I was tired.
These are all adverbial clauses. In these types of complex sentence, the second clause can be used to start the sentence.
In this case, a comma is needed in the middle.
Even though they may not have been tested, people take natural health supplements.
If we don't spend more on schools, our children may not be properly educated.
As soon as he left, I went to bed because I was tired.
Noun clauses and relative clauses are also a type of complex sentence structure, but these will be looked at later.
4. Compound-Complex Sentences
Compound-complex sentences are the same as complex sentences but they also have a simple (or compound) sentence before or after the 'complex' part.
I ate a lot when I got home, but I was still hungry.
The part that is underlined is the complex sentence. As you can see, it also has a simple sentences connected to it. It can also have a full compound sentence attached to it:
I ate a lot when I got home, but I was still hungry, so I went shopping to buy some more food.
These are a compound-complex sentences.
However, it can obviously help with your speaking and also with your reading as it is easy to misunderstand what you have read if you are confused by different sentence structures.
All grammar for IELTS is important, but there are some specific things that are directly related to IELTS.
The explanations and exercises will highlight these so you can see how they are relevant.
Why is grammar important?
There is no actual grammar test section in the IELTS test, but you are still graded on this by the examiner in the speaking test and writing test.
These are specifically what you are graded on in each test:
• Task Achievement / Response
• Coherence and Cohesion
• Lexical Resource
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy
• Fluency and coherence
• Lexical Resource
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy
So as you can see, grammar makes up 25% of each test.
However, it is also important for the 'lexical resource' part. This is your use of such
things as your vocabulary, idiomatic vocabulary, and collocations.
You will be marked down on this if you are making mistakes with such things as word
forms (e.g. using a noun form instead of a verb form) so this is also grammar related.
This is not to suggest that you should focus only on grammar as the other elements such as fluency in your speaking and your ability to answer the question and organise your response in the writing are a major part of the marking.
But it is clearly important to work on improving your IELTS grammar, and this is often the part candidates have the most problems with and the thing that brings their score down.
How is the grammar for IELTS writing marked exactly?
In order to work on improving your IELTS grammar, it is useful to understand how it is marked.
For each of the parts of the exam highlighed above, you are given a band score (so you get four scores) and these are then averaged to get your overall score for your writing.
• Task Achievement / Response - band 6
• Coherence and Cohesion - band 6
• Lexical Resource - band 6
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy - band 5
Overall score = 5.5
The table below shows the two sections on lexis and grammar. These are adapted from the public band descriptors and show you what the examiner is looking for.
The column on 'grammatical range and accuracy' is exactly as from the public band descriptors, but the 'lexical resource' column just picks out the parts related to grammar.
Writing Band Descriptors for Grammar
Grammatical Range & Accuracy
Sophisticaled control of lexical features; rareminor 'slips' occur
· Uses a wide range of structures with full flexibility and accuracy; rare minor errors occur only as slips.
Produces rare errorsin spelling and / or word formation
· Uses a wide range of structures
· The majority of sentences are error-free
· Makes only very occasional errors or inappropriacies
Occasional errors in word choice, spelling, and / or word formation
· Uses a variety of complex structures
· Produces frequent error-free sentences
· Has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few errors
Some errors in spelling and / or word formation, but they do not impede communication
· Uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms
· Makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication
Noticeable errors in spelling and / or word formation that maycause some difficultyfor the reader
· Uses only a limited range of structures
· Attempts complex sentences but these tend to be less accurate than simple sentences
· May make frequent grammatical errors and punctuation may be faulty; errors can cause some difficulty for the reader
Limited control of word formation and / or spelling; errors may cause strain for the reader
· Uses only a very limited range of structures with only rare use of subordinate clauses
· Some structures are accurate but errors predominate, and punctuation is often faulty
Errors may severely distort the message
· Attempts sentence forms but errors in grammar and punctuation predominate and distort the meaning
Essentially no control of word formation and / or spelling
· Cannot use sentence forms except in memorised phrases
Can only use a few isolated words
Cannot use sentence forms
Understanding the descriptors
If you study the table you will notice phrases near the top such as 'rare', 'occasional' and 'few' in reference to word form and grammatical errors.
Near the band 6 range are phrases such as 'some', and then 'noticeable' and 'causing difficulty' as you go down lower.
You can also see that it is important to be:
• Getting your word forms right
• Understanding how to write complex sentences
• Expanding your range of grammatical structures you can use
• Using grammar accurately (i.e minimising your error density).
So the pages you'll find here link to explanations and exercises on IELTS grammar to
help you improve your score and your grammar.
This is a new section so there are only two IELTS grammar lessons so far.
Start with this one on sentence clauses.
When you understand these, move on to learn more about sentence structure, specifically simple, compound and complex sentences.
This lesson then explains in more detail about complex sentences, which are essential to be able to write correctly for a higher band score.
One type of complex sentence you can learn about here is adverbial clauses.
Follow this link to learn more about modal verbs and how they are commonly used in IELTS for writing and speaking.
Keep an eye on this page though as it will be updated further. Good luck!
دوره فشرده گرامر آیلتس و نکات کلیدی آیلتس
تدریس خصوصی فشرده آیلتس
گرامر آیلتس کاربرد حروف اضافه در زبان انگلیسی و آیلتس
Prepositions: Locators in Time and Place
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.
Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.
All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction].
Those words in bold blue font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.
You may have learned that ending a sentence with a preposition is a serious breach of grammatical etiquette. It doesn't take a grammarian to spot a sentence-ending preposition, so this is an easy rule to get caught up on (!). Although it is often easy to remedy the offending preposition, sometimes it isn't, and repair efforts sometimes result in a clumsy sentence. "Indicate the book you are quoting from" is not greatly improved with "Indicate from which book you are quoting."
Based on shaky historical precedent, the rule itself is a latecomer to the rules of writing. Those who dislike the rule are fond of recalling Churchill's rejoinder: "That is nonsense up with which I shall not put." We should also remember the child's complaint: "What did you bring that book that I don't like to be read to out of up for?"
Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn. This page contains some interesting (sometimes troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes. To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand (to hand?) is an important first step.
Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in
We use at to designate specific times.
#The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
We use on to designate days and dates.
#My brother is coming on Monday.
#We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
#She likes to jog in the morning.
#It's too cold in winter to run outside.
#He started the job in 1971.
#He's going to quit in August.
Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
We use at for specific addresses.
#Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
#Her house is on Boretz Road.
And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
#She lives in Durham.
#Durham is in Windham County.
#Windham County is in Connecticut.
Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on and No Preposition
* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.
Prepositions of Movement: to
and No Preposition
We use to in order to express movement toward a place.
#They were driving to work together.
#She's going to the dentist's office this morning.
Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you.
#We're moving toward the light.
#This is a big step towards the project's completion.
With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition.
#Grandma went upstairs
#Grandpa went home.
#They both went outside.
Prepositions of Time: for and since
We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).
#He held his breath for seven minutes.
#She's lived there for seven years.
#The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
We use since with a specific date or time.
#He's worked here since 1970.
#She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.
Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.
Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.
NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS
ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS
VERBS and PREPOSITIONS
look forward to
A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation.
Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions
agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle
argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)
correspond to a thing, with a person
differ from an unlike thing, with a person
live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people
آموزش نکات گرامری آیلتس
کلاس گرامر آیلتس
When I hear the hypercritical quarreling about grammar and style, the position of the particles, etc., etc., stretching or contracting every speaker to certain rules of theirs. I see that they forget that the first requisite and rule is that expression shall be vital and natural, as much as the voice of a brute or an interjection: first of all, mother tongue; and last of all, artificial or father tongue. Essentially your truest poetic sentence is as free and lawless as a lamb's bleat.
Coordinating, correlative, and subordinating conjunctions are tools that help us connect items in a sentence. In this lesson, you'll learn why these connectors are such essential language components.
CONJUNCTIONS CONNECT WORDS, phrases, and sentences in our writing and speech. Two common forms of conjunctions are coordinating and correlative conjunctions. While both of these connect elements that are similar in form (nouns with nouns, phrases with phrases, and sentences with sentences), the correlative conjunctions also show relationship between sentence elements and ideas. Another type of conjunction, and probably the most widely used, is the subordinating conjunction, which connects independent clauses (simple sentences) with subordinate clauses (a group of words that has a subject and verb like a sentence, but cannot stand by itself) that are similar in their relationship rather than in their form. Let's look at these more closely.
C O O R D I N AT I N G C O N J U N C T I O N S
The acronym FANBOYS will help you remember the seven coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. The following chart explains what each conjunction means, and gives an example of how it can be used in a sentence. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS for is almost like because or since; it introduces, in a formal tone, a reason Keith did poorly on his math test for he forgot to study last night. [sentence + sentence] joins elements that are sequential and equal in importance The barn was up the road and by the river. [prepositional phrase + prepositional phrase] presents an alternate negative idea or thought Brian did not like singing, nor did he like dancing. implies difference, contrast, and exceptions Our car is old but reliable. [adjective + adjective] implies that an alternative or option will follow I can't decide if I want an apple or a banana with my yogurt. [noun + noun] implies that a contrary but logical idea will follow Jackie is a quiet yet very outgoing girl. [adjective + adjective] suggests that a consequence will follow Linda turned the light on so she could see where she was walking. [sentence + sentence]
C O R R E L AT I V E C O N J U N C T I O N S
Like coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions connect elements that are similar in form. The following chart shows the five common pairs of correlative conjunctions, with examples of how they can be used in a sentence.conjunctions
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS both . . . and Both popcorn and peanuts are popular snacks at sporting events. [noun + noun] Either I will have to tell Lionel or you will. [sentence + sentence] Zack could neither talk on the phone nor watch television the entire week. [sentence + sentence] Maria not only skis but also snowboards. [noun + noun] Do you know whether Luke or Robin are coming to dinner? [noun + noun]
either . . . or neither . . . nor
not only . . . but also whether . . . or
S U B O R D I N AT I N G C O N J U N C T I O N S
Subordinating conjunctions join an independent clause (a simple sentence) with a subordinate clause (a group of words that has a subject and verb like a sentence, but cannot stand by itself). For example: I.C. I went to see a doctor. S.C. because my throat hurt.
We can understand the first clause, I went to see a doctor without any further explanation, because it is a simple sentence. But the phrase because my throat hurt is a subordinate clause (it begins with the subordinating conjunction because) and is an incomplete thought, so it must be joined with an independent clause in order to make sense. The subordinating conjunctions found at the beginning of subordinating clauses imply these four categories: time, cause and effect, condition, and contrast.
COMMON SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Time after before when since until as soon as Cause/Effect because so now that in order that as if whether Condition as long as unless provided that so long as if while Contrast although even though though whereas even if whenever
Choosing the appropriate subordinating conjunction depends on what you want to imply in your sentence. For example: if when as long as now that before If my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. When my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. As long as my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. Now that my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor. Before my throat hurts, I will go to the doctor.
When using the following conjunctions, you should add not to the subordinate clause to imply contrast: although even though Although my throat hurts, I will not go to the doctor. Even though my throat hurts, I will not go to the doctor.
or leave them as is . . . although even though Although it is fall, the day is still warm. Even though it is fall, the day is still warm.
The Gerund and the Present Participle: 'ING' Form
The '-ing' form of the verb may be a present participle or a gerund.
The form is identical, the difference is in the function, or the job the word does in the sentence.
The present participle:
This is most commonly used:
as part of the continuous form of a verb,
he is painting; she has been waiting
after verbs of movement/position in the pattern:
verb + present participle,
She sat looking at the sea
after verbs of perception in the pattern:
verb + object + present participle,
We saw him swimming
as an adjective, e.g. amazing, worrying, exciting, boring
This always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used:
as the subject of the sentence:
Eating people is wrong.
Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
She is good at painting
after certain verbs,
e.g. like, hate, admit, imagine
in compound nouns,
e.g. a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spotting
دوره فشرده گرامر آیلتس استاد آرین